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杨雄里
发布日期:2015-12-15 来源:九三学社中央宣传部
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杨雄里(1941年10月14日—),出生于上海。神经生物学家、生理学家。1991年当选为中国科学院学部委员(院士)。2000年加入九三学社。九三学社第十一届中央委员会委员。

杨雄里祖籍浙江省镇海县,出生于上海殷实的商贾之家,1946年入上海钱江小学,幼时尚聪明,生性顽皮,学业只在中上,但阅读了大量中国古典文学作品。1955年在上海光明中学读高中,后立志从事科学研究,学业不断进步,对俄语学习情有独钟,并广泛涉猎中外文学名著。1958年,杨雄里考入上海科技大学生物学系,因其在筹建中,遂入上海第一医学院(现复旦大学上海医学院)医疗系学习医学基础课程。1960年秋,按“科大”安排进入中国科学院上海生理研究所学习,并明确日后师从刘育民教授从事视觉生理研究。同年11月底,前往长春光学精密机械学院(现长春理工大学)应用光学系学习。长春的两年在杨雄里的一生中起着关键作用。在饥寒交迫的情况下,杨雄里发愤学习,成绩突出,并自学英语和德语。1963年3月回生理所,同年7月自上海科大毕业。大学期间,杨雄里所有专业课程考核成绩均为优秀,并能流畅地阅读俄、英、德专业书籍,唯政治考核勉强及格。杨雄里打下了较坚实的医学生物学基础,在数理方面又受到了良好的训练,这两方面知识的融合对杨雄里日后科学研究的开展至关重要。

1963年9月,杨雄里开始在刘育民教授领导的特殊感官生理研究室任研究实习员。半年内,杨雄里通读了TheEye四卷(Davson,H主编)和ThePhysiologyoftheEye(Davson,H著),奠定了杨雄里从事视觉研究的理论基础,同时开始熟悉相关的电生理技术,练习做研究。但1964年夏,杨雄里被安排去上海郊县参加“四清工作队”,翌年夏天回所,开始着手视色素漂白和复生动力学研究的准备工作。“文化大革命”的风暴不久便席卷中国大地,研究所中已“安放不下一张平静的书桌”,杨雄里的科研前期准备工作即告终止。

像大多数知识分子一样,“文革”对杨雄里是一场噩梦,他曾遭遇各种政治审查,甚至被怀疑是新发展的国民党中统、军统特务。但是,即使在这段“万马齐喑”的时期,他本着“读书总会有用的”朴素愿望,并未放弃专业学习,并自学法语和日语。在“文革”中后期,他在“理论联系实际”的大旗下,从事“灯光诱捕海水鱼机理研究”和“中国人标准眼(standardobserver)”的研究,为其在十年浩劫后的崛起奠定了基础。

“机遇垂青有准备的头脑。”1980年4月,他作为首批留日进修生被选派至日本国立生理学研究所金子章道教授实验室进修。在日期间,他应用细胞内记录技术对鱼类视网膜水平细胞接收的光感受器的输入及其相互作用进行了细致分析。1982年,杨雄里被静冈大学、国立生理学研究所联合授予学术博士学位。

1982年4月,杨雄里回国,随即在生理所建立了自己的实验室,开始对鱼类C型水平细胞的特性进行分析,并与厦门大学海洋系合作开展对青蟹复眼光敏感度的昼夜节律变化的研究。

1985年9月,杨雄里赴美哈佛大学生物学实验室道林(JohnDowling)教授处工作,对鲈鱼接受视锥信号的水平细胞在暗中受压抑的现象及其可能机制进行了较深入的分析。1986年底南迁至贝勒(Baylor)医学院与吴淼鑫博士(SamuelWu)合作,以蝾螈视网膜为标本,研究外层视网膜神经回路的信息传递和调控。

1987年末,杨雄里回国,应聘担任生理所所长,并重新组织、扩建自己的实验室。之后20余年,他主要在祖国的土地上耕耘,先是在生理所,后至复旦大学,曾担任复旦大学神经生物学研究所所长,复旦大学脑科学院院长。

杨雄里的研究属神经生物学领域,其主要研究目标是,应用多学科技术(细胞内记录、染色技术、免疫组织化学技术、膜片钳技术、钙成像技术等)对“光感受器的电信号如何在视网膜神经元组成的回路中传递”,“这种信号的传递如何为多种因素所调制”,“这种信号传递的机理是什么”等视网膜生理的基本问题做出回答。在研究过程中,他特别注意应用多层次的标本,努力对研究问题形成比较完整的认识。

视网膜是紧贴眼球后部内壁的神经组织,对其研究至少有两个重要意义。首先,视觉是人体和动物体最重要的感觉,有70%以上的外界信息通过视觉系统感受、加工处理,而其中有相当一部分在视网膜中完成,或做初步加工。此外,从胚胎发育的角度来看,视网膜实际上是中枢神经系统的一部分,但它又具有细胞类型相对比较简单,排列整齐、清楚,易于着手研究等特点,因而可以作为阐明脑的基本信息处理机制的一种良好模型,受到人们广泛重视。

杨雄里在视网膜方面的研究可以归纳成以下几个方面:一是视网膜第二级神经元接收的光感受器信号及其相互作用的分析;二是外层视网膜神经元反应特性为明、暗的调制及其可能机制;三是视网膜神经元表达的氨基酸受体和转运体的确定;四是视网膜中信号传递的调制及机制。其研究成果总结在200余篇学术论文中。他的研究工作得到科技部、教育部、中国科学院、国家自然科学基金委、上海市科委等基金资助。曾作为PrincipalInvestigator(PI)和Co-PI 分获美国国立健康研究院和国际人类前沿科学计划组织研究基金资助。1988年国家人事部授予杨雄里“国家级有突出贡献的中青年科技专家”称号,1989年、1996年分获中科院自然科学奖一等奖、二等奖,1991年当选为上海市十大科技精英之一,2001年获何梁何利科技进步奖,2006年获教育部自然科学奖一等奖,上海市自然科学奖一等奖。

杨雄里现任国际学术杂志ProgressinNeurobiology编委、《辞海》副总主编、亚太地区生理学联合会秘书长。他还曾任《生理学报》主编、亚太地区生理学联合会副主席、科技部“攀登项目”(脑功能及其细胞和分子机制)首席科学家、中国生理学会理事长、《中国神经科学杂志》主编、国家重点基础研究规划(“973”项目)“脑功能和脑重大疾病的基础研究”首席科学家。

杨雄里培养博士生30余名、硕士生10名,其中大部分是硕博连读。学生毕业后几乎全部有留学经历,其中若干人回国工作,担任教授(浙江大学)、PI(中科院神经所);在国外工作者,有多人担任副教授、助理教授。另培养博士后4人。在培养博士生过程中,杨雄里注意训练其独立研究能力,他认为这是研究生阶段不同于本科生最重要的特点,从课题的提出、文献检索、研究推进、论文撰写及送审,杨雄里无不强调学生的主动精神,对懈怠、被动、消极作风深恶痛绝。杨雄里认为这对于学生今后研究生涯的发展、对于弘扬科学精神是绝对必需的。

杨雄里重视科学普及工作,经常通过科普讲座向公众普及神经科学的基本知识,介绍该学科的发展态势及对社会发展的影响。

主要论著

1Yang XL,Tauchi M.,Kaneko A,Quantitative Analysis of Photorceptor Inpuls to External  Horizontal Cells in the Goldfish Retina,Jpn.J.Physiol, 1982,32:399~420.

2Yang XL,Tauchi M,Kaneko A,Convergence of Signals from Red-sensitive and Green-sensitive Cones to External Horizontal Cells of the Goldfish Retina,Vision Res,1983,23:371~380

3Yang XLet al,Circadian Rhythm in the Electroretinogram of the Crab (Scylla Serrata),Acta PhysiolSinica,1984,36:202~206

4杨雄里,一种新的双相C型水平细胞的鉴定,中国科学(B辑),1986,29:835~842。

5Yang XL,Convergence of Photoreceptor Inputs onto Horizontal Cells of Cyprinid Retina,Vision:Structure and FunctionScience Publishing Inc,1988,192~232

6Yang XL,Tornquist K,Dowling JE,Modulation of Cone Horizontal Cell Activity in the Teleost Fish RetinaIEffects of Prolonged Darkness and Background Illumination on Light Responsiveness, JNeurosci,1988,8:2259~2268

7Yang XL,Tornquist K,Dowling JE,Modulation of Cone Horizontal Cell Activity in the Teleost Fish Retina,IIRole of Interplexiform Cells and Dopamine in Regulating Light Responsiveness,JNeurosci,1988,8:2269~2278

8Tornquist K,Yang XL,Dowling,JE,Modulation of Cone Horizontal Cell Activity in the Teleost Fish Retina,ⅢEffects of Prolonged Darkness and Dopamine on Coupling of Horizontal CellsJNeurosci,1988,8:2279~2288

9Yang XL,WuSM,Effects of Background Illumination on the Horizontal Cell Responses in the Tiger Salamander Retina,JNeurosci,1989,9:815~827

10Yang XL,Wu SM,Effects of Prolonged Light Exposure,GABA and Glycine on the Horizontal Cell Responses in the Tiger Salamander Retina, JNeurophysiol,1989,61:1025~1035

11Yang XL,Wu SM,Effects of CNQX,APB,PDA,Kynurenate on Horizontal Cells of the Tiger Salamander Retina,VisNeurosci,1989,3:207~212

12Yang XL,Wu SM,Modulation of Rod-cone Coupling by Light,Science,1989,244:352~354

13Yang XL,Fan TX,Li JD,Electroretinographic b-wave Merely Reflects the Activity of the Rod System in the Dark Adapted Carp Retina,Vision Res,1990,30:993~999

14Yang XL,Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Retina,Documenta Ophthalmologica,1991,76:377~387

15Yang XL,Wu SM,Feedforward Lateral Inhibition in Retinal Bipolar Cells:Input-output Relation of the HC-DBC Synapse,ProcNatlAcadSci,USA,1991,88:8310~8313

16Yang XL,Wu SM,Coexistence and Functions of Multiple Types of Glutamate Receptor in the Horizontal Cells of the Tiger Salamander Retina,Vis Neurosci,1991,7:377~382

17Yang XL,Wu SM,Effects of GABA on Horizontal Cells in the Tiger Salamander Retina,Vision Res,1993,33:1339~1344

18Yang XL,Shen W,Fan TX,Effects of Prolonged Darkness on Light Responsiveness and Spectral Sensitivity of Cone Horizontal Cells,in Carp Retina in VivoJNeurosci,1994,14:326~334

19Yang XL,Wu SM,Effects of Calcium on Rod and Cone Inputs to Horizontal Cells  of the Tiger Salamander RetinaVisNeurosci,1994,11:363~368

20Yang XL,Wu MS,Response Sensitivity and Voltage Gains of the Rod- and Cone-horizontal Cell Synapses in Dark- and Light-adapted Tiger Salamander RetinaJNeurophysiol,1996,76:3863~3874

21杨雄里,视觉的神经机制,上海科学技术出版社,1996。

22Han MH,Li Y,Yang XL,Desensitizing GABAc Receptors on Carp Bipolar CellsNeuroReport,1997,8:1331~1335

23Yang XL,Wu MS,Response Sensitivity and Voltage Gain of the Rod-and Cone-bipolar Cell Synapses in Dark-adapted Tiger Salamander RetinaJNeurophysiol,1997,78:2662~2673

24Zhang DQ,Yang XL,OFF Pathway is Preferentially Suppressed by the Activation of GABAA Receptors in Carp RetinaBrain Research,1997,759:160~162 

25杨雄里,脑科学的现代进展,上海科技教育出版社,1998。

26Zhang DQ,Yang XL,GABA Modulates Color-opponent Bipolar CellsBrain Res,1998,792:319~323

27Lu T,Shen Y,Yang XL,Desensitization of AMPA Receptors on Horizontal Cells Isolated from Crucian Carp RetinaNeurosciRes,1998,31:123~135

28Li P,Yang XL,Strong Synergism between GABAA and Glycine Receptors on Isolated Carp Third-order Neurons,NeuroReport,1998,9:2875~2879

29Shen Y,Lu T,Yang XL,Modulation of Desensitization at Glutamate Receptors in Isolated Carp Horizontal Cells by Con A,Cyclothiazide,Aniracetam and PEPANeuroscience,1999,89:1979~1990

30Shen Y,Yang XL,Zinc Modulation of AMPA Receptors May Be Relevant to Splice Variants in Carp Retina Neuroscience Letters,1999,259:177~180

31Zhang J,Yang XL,GABAB Receptors in Muller Cells of the Bullfrog RetinaNeuroReport,1999,10:1833~1836

32Li P,Yang XL,Zn2+ Differentially Modulates Glycine Versus GABA Receptors in Isolated Carp Retinal Third-order NeuronsNeuroscience Letters,1999,269:75~78

33Han MH,Yang XL,Zn2+Differentially Modulates Kinetics of GABAC vs GABAA Receptors in Carp Retinal Bipolar Cells NeuroReport,1999,10:2593~2597 

34Yang XL,Shen Y,Han MH,Lu T,Physiological and Pharmacological Characterization of Glutamate and GABA Receptors in the Retina Korean JPhysiolPharmacol1999,3:461~469.

35Shen Y,Zhou Y,Yang XL,Characterization of AMPA Receptors on Isolated Amacrine-like Cells in Carp RetinaEurJNeurosci1999,11:4233~4240

36Xu HP,Yang XL,Differential Modulation by GABA of Signals from Red-and Green-sensitive Cones in the Carp Retina Brain ResBull,2000,51:493~497

37Du JL,Yang XL,Subcellular Localozation and Complements of GABAA and GABAc Receptors on Bullfrog Retinal Bipolar Cells JNeurophysiol,2000,84:666~676

38Li P,Yang XL,Forskolin Modulation of Desensitization at GABAA and Glycine Receptors is not Mediated by CAMP-dependent Protein Kinase in Isolated Carp Amacrine-like CellsPflüGer Arch(EurJPhysiol),2001,441:739~745

39Yang XL, Li P,Lu T,Shen Y,Han MH,Physiological and Pharmacological Characterization of Glutamate and GABA Receptors on Carp Retinal Neurons,ProgBrain Res,2001,131:277~294

40Xu HP,Luo DG,Yang XL,Signals from Cone Photoreceptors to L-type Horizontal Cells are Differentially Modulated by Low Calcium in Carp RetinaEurJNeurosci,2001,13:1411~1419

41Zhao JW,Yang XL,Glutamate Transporter EAAC1 is Expressed on Müller Cells of Lower Vertebrate RetinasJNeurosciRes,2001,66:89~95.

42Luo DG,Yang XL,Zn2+ Differentially Modulates Signals From Red- and Short Wavelength-sensitive Cones to Horizontal Cells in Carp RetinaBrain Res ,2001,900:95~102

43Li GL,Li P,Yang XL,Melatonin Modulates γ-amino-butyric Acid Receptor-mediated Currents on Isolated Carp Retinal NeuronsNeurosciLett,2001,301:49~53

44Yang R,Yang XL,Differential Modulation by AMPA of Signals from Red- and Green Sensitive Cones in Carp Retinal Luminosity-type Horizontal CellsScience in China (Ser C),2001,44:373~382

45Du JL,Yang XL,Bullfrog Retinal Bipolar Cells may Express Heterogeneous Glycine Receptors at Dendrites and Axon TerminalsNeuroscience Letters 2002,322:177~181

46Yang XL,Fan G,Wu SM,Non-linear,High-gain and Sustained –to- transient Signal Transmisson from Rods to Amacrine Cells in Dark-adapted Retina of AmbystomaJPhysiol,2002,539:239~251

47Du JL,Yang XL,Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission to Bullfrog Retinal Bipolar Cells is Input-specificNeuroscience,2002,113:779~784

48Xu HP,Zhao JW,Yang XL,Expression of Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel Subunits in the Rat RetinaNeurosciLett,2002,329:297~300

49Luo DG,Li GL,Yang XL,Zn2+Modulates Light Responses of Color- opponent Bipolar and Amacrine Cells in the Carp RetinaBrain ResBull,2002,58:461~468

50Xu HP,Yang XL,Different Effects of Low Ca2+ on Signal Transmission from Rods and Cones to Bipolar Cells in Carp RetinaBrain Res,2002,957:136~143

51Luo DG,Yang XL,Suppression by Zinc of Transient OFF Responses of Carp Amacrine Cells to Red Light is Mediated by GABAA ReceptorsBrain Res,2002,958:222~226

52Du JL,Xu LY,Yang XL,Glycine Receptors and Transporters on Bullfrog Retinal Müller CellsNeuroReport 2002,13:1653~1656

53Xu HP,Zhao JW,Yang XL,Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells Differentially Express Calcium Channel Subunits in the Rat RetinaNeuroscience,2003,118:763~768

54Li GL,Yang XL,Glycinergic Input to Carp Retinal Ganglion Cells may be Mediated by Glycine Receptors with Homologous KineticsBrain Res,2003,991:171~179

55Shen Y,Zhang AJ,Yang XL,Uncoupling of Horizontal Cells Alters the Receptive Fields of Retinal Bipolar CellsNeuroReport,2003,14:2159~2163.

56Yang XL,Characterization  of  Receptors for Glutamate and GABA in Retinal NeuronsProgress in Neurobiology,2004,73:127~150

57Xu LY,Zhao JW,Yang XL,GLAST Expression on Bullfrog Muller Cells is Regulated by Dark/LightNeuroReport,2004,16:2451~2454

58Lee SC,Zhong YM,Yang XL,Expression of Glycine Receptor and Transporter on Bullfrog Retinal Muller CellsNeurosciLett,2005,387:75~79 

59Huang H,Lee SC,Yang XL,Modulation by Melatonin of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Carp RetinaJPhysiol,2005,569:857~871

60Yu YC,Cao LH,Yang XL,Modulation by Brain Natriuretic Peptide of GABA Receptors on Rat Retinal Bipolar CellsJNeurosci,2006,26:696~707

61Tian M,Yang XL,C-type Natriuretic Peptide Modulates Glutamate Receptors in CultuRed Rat Retinal Amacrine CellsNeuroscience,2006,139:1211~1220

62Liu J,Li GL,Yang XL,An Iontropic GABA Receptor with Novel Pharmacology at Bullfrog Cone Photoreceptor TerminalsNeuroSignals,2006,15:13~25

63Cheng Z,Zhong YM,Yang XL,Expression of the Dopamine Transporter in Rat and Bullfrog Retinas NeuroReport,2006,17:773~777

64Liu J,Yang XL,OFF Response of Bullfrog Cones is Shaped by Terminal Ionotropic GABA ReceptorsBrain ResBull,2006,71:219~233

65Shen Y,Liu XL,Yang XL,NMDA Receptors in the Retina Molecular Neurobiology,2006,34:163~179

66Cao LH,Yang XL,Natriuretic Peptide Receptor NPR-A is Functionally Expressed on Bullfrog Retinal Muller CellsBrain ResBull,2007,71:410~415 

67Han L,Zhong YM,Yang XL,5-HT2A Receptors are Differentially Expressed in Bullfrog and Rat Retinas:A Comparative StudyBrain ResBull2007,73:273~277

68Jin Y,Zhong YM,Yang XL,Natriuretic Peptides are Localized to Rat Retinal Amacrine CellsNeurosci Lett,2007,421:106~109

69Zhang M,Cao LH,Yang XL,Melatonin Enhances Glycineinduced Currents of Retinal Ganglion Cells in RatNeuroReport,2007,18:1675~1678

70Chen L,Yang XL,Hyperpolarization-activated Current(Ih) is Involved in Modulation of the Excitability of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by DopamineNeuroscience,2007,150:299~308

71Cao LH,Yang XL,Natriuretic Peptides and Their Receptors in the Central Nervous SystemProgNeurobiology,2008,84:234~248

72Cao LH,Zhou B,Yang XL,Modulation by BNP of GABA Receptors on ON Type Rod Bipolar Cells is Dependent on Subcellular SitesBrain Res,2008,1216:46~52

73Zhang XM,Zhong YM,Yang XL,TASK-2 is Expressed in Proximal Neurons in the Rat RetinaNeuroReport,2009,20:946~950

74Liu CR,Zhong YM,Yang XL,Expression of Cx35/36 in Retinal Horizontal and Bipolar Cells of CarpNeuroscience,2009,64:1161~1169

75Ke JB,Chen W,Yang XL,Wang Z,Characterization of Spontaneous Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents in Cultured Rat Retinal Amacrine CellsNeuroscience,2009,165:395~407

76Zhao WJ,Zhang M,Yang XL,Wang ZF,Melatonin Potentiates Glycine Currents Through a PC-PLC/PKC Signaling Pathway in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells JPhysiol,2010,588(14):2605~2619